American Civilization

October 11, 2008

Links for Tuesday Lecture

Filed under: Early republic — equiano @ 7:25 pm
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Prof. Daly has requested that I pass the following links along to you for Tuesday’s lecture:

http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/1791manufactures.html

http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/HNS/Yoeman/qxix.html

These texts, as your syllabus indicates, in addition to chapter 8 of the Norton.

Good luck.

Documents

Filed under: Early republic — equiano @ 10:51 am
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The US Constitution

The original first draft of the Declaration of Independence in which Jefferson argues, among other things, that George III 

“has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life & liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither. this piratical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the CHRISTIAN king of Great Britain. determined to keep open a market where MEN should be bought & sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce:[11] and that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people upon whom he also obtruded them; thus paying off former crimes committed against theliberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another.”

Other crucial documents of the era of the Revolution and Early Republic:

Thomas Paine’s collected works

John Locke’s 2nd Treatise on Government

The Articles of Confederation

The Federalist Papers (there are 85 of them, though number 10 is one of the most famous)

The Anti-Federalist Papers

 

October 7, 2008

Shays’s Rebellion, etc.

Filed under: Early republic — equiano @ 9:52 pm
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“What country before ever existed a century & half without a rebellion? & what country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance? Let them take arms. The remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon & pacify them. What signify a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots & tyrants. It is its natural manure.”

— Thomas Jefferson to William Stephens Smith Nov 13, 1787.

It’s interesting to note that few of the rebels who attacked the Springfield armory were punished with death. Instead, they were required to swear an oath of allegiance and deprived of certain rights. We can categorize this response to the insurrection as a form of restorative justice, as opposed to retributive justice (ie, “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth”). 

I did some digging on the economic situation which precipitated Shays’s Rebellion. 

Soldiers of the Continental Army were paid not in cash but in certificates. Lacking money, the economy in turmoil, many sold these financial instruments for a pittance to speculators who were convinced that the government would eventually redeem them. 

From a review of a recent book on Shays’s Rebellion:

“According to Leonard Richards, a Professor of History at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst), the “standard story” of the rebellion is that following the Revolutionary War, Boston and other New England merchants imported sizable amounts of British goods that drained specie from the economy, leading to heavy merchant indebtedness. The seaboard merchants (wholesalers) consequently sold their goods on credit to merchants in the interior (retailers) who in turn sold their goods on credit to backcountry farmers. This led to a “chain of debt.” Then, when the British closed their Caribbean islands to American shipping, matters took a decided turn for the worse. The seaboard merchants could no longer earn enough revenues through trade to cover their sizable debts. As a result, they sued the interior merchants for payment who in turn sued the backcountry farmers. Given the sluggish economy and lack of specie in post-war Massachusetts, and given existing legal-political institutions (the court system and “debtors’ prisons”), western farmers were ultimately dragged into court for nonpayment in record numbers. Many were fined and often jailed. To avoid debtor trials, potential fines, and possible imprisonment, Shays and his followers attacked the local authorities and closed the courts.”

Remember:

Read the US Constitution for next Tuesday, Oct. 14.

The reading assignment for Oct. 16 is fairly ambitious: The Contrast, Fashion, and Uncle Tom’s Cabin– plays that are all found in Early American Drama, which is available in the bookstore.

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